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Feminist Psychology Classics

North American Classics I

This is a small selection of pre-second wave primary sources, many of which focused on empirically testing beliefs about sex differences. Also see the Special Collection entitled "An historical view of some early women psychologists and the psychology of women" by Katherine Milar at the Classics in the History of Psychology website.


Hollingworth, L. S. (1914a). Functional periodicity: An experimental study of the mental and motor abilities of women during menstruation. Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 69.


Hollingworth, L. S. (1914b). Variability as related to sex differences in achievement: A critique. American Journal of Sociology, 19, 510-530.


Hollingworth, L. S. & Lowie, R. (1916/2002). Science and feminism. In D. Keetley (Ed.), Public women, public words: A documentary history of American feminism, Volume II, 1900- 1960 (pp. 90-95). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publisher.


Calkins, M. W. (1896). Dr. Jastrow on community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 2, 363-367.


Seward, G. H. (1944). Psychological effects of the menstrual cycle in women workers. Psychological Bulletin, 41, 90-102.


Seward, G. H. (1944). Sex roles in postwar planning. Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 163-185.


Seward, G. H. (1946). Sex and the social order. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Tanner, A. (1896). The community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 3, 548-550.


Thompson, H. B. (1903). The mental traits of sex: An empirical investigation of the normal mind in men and women. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Woolley, H. T. (1914). The psychology of sex. Psychological Bulletin, 11, 353-379.


North American Classics II

This is a highly selective list of second wave and post-second wave works that have had a significant impact. Since this is in many ways "history in the making," not all may agree with these selections and many will have their own favorites that do not appear here. We also include several works written by non-psychologists that have significantly influenced feminist psychology.


Belenky, M. F., Clinchey, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing: Development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.


Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.


Brodsky, A. M., & Hare-Mustin, R. T. (1980). Women and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.


Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., Rosenkrantz, P. S., & Vogel, S. R. (1970). Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 1-7.


Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.


Chesler, P. (1972). Women and madness. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.


Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


Collins, P. Hill (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.


Crenshaw, K. W. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241-1299.


Deaux, K. & Emswiller, T. (1974). Explanation of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 80-85.


Dinnerstein, D. (1976). The mermaid and the minotaur: Sexual arrangement and human malaise. New York: Harper & Row.


Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Espin, O. (1997). Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Fine, M. (1992). Disruptive voices: The possibilities of feminist research. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.


Fine, M., Weis, L., Powell, L., & Burns, A. (Eds.)(2004). Off-white: Readings on power, privilege, and resistance, Second edition.New York: Routledge.


Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Harding, S. (1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Henley, N. (1977). Body politics: Power, sex, and nonverbal communication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


hooks, b. (1981). Ain't I a woman? Black women and feminism. Boston: South End Press.


hooks, b. (1984). Feminist theory: From margin to center. Boston: South End Press.


Horner, M. S. (1972). Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in women. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 157-175.


Hurtado, A. (1996). The color of privilege: Three blasphemies on race and feminism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.


Hyde, J. S. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60, 581-592.


Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


Miller, J. B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon Press.


Mohanty, C. T. (1988). Under western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. Feminist Review, 30, 61-88.


Reid, P. T. (1993). Poor women in psychological research: Shut up and shut out. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 133-150.


Reinharz, S. (1979/1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford University Press.


Rich, A. (1979). On lies, secrets, and silence. New York: Norton.


Riger, S. (1992). Epistemological debates, feminist voices: Science, social values, and the study of women. American Psychologist, 47, 730-740.


Sandoval, C. (2000). Methodology of the oppressed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.


Sedgwick, E. K. (1990). Epistemology of the closet. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Sherif, C. W. (1979/1998). Bias in psychology. Reprinted in Feminism & Psychology, 8, 58-75.


Sherman, J.A. (1971). On the psychology of women: A survey of empirical studies. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.


Tiefer, L. (1995). Sex is not a natural act and other essays. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Tobach, E., & Rosoff, B. (1977). Genes and gender (Vol. 1). New York: Gordian Press.


Tuwahi Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London: Zed Books. 


Unger, R. K. (1979). Toward a redefinition of sex and gender. American Psychologist, 34, 1085-1094.


Weisstein, N. (1971). Psychology constructs the female; or, The fantasy life of the male psychologist (with some attention to the fantasies of his friends, the male biologist and the male anthropologist). Journal of Social Education, 35, 362-373.


Weisstein, N. (1977). "How can a little girl like you teach a great big class of men?" the Chairman said, and other adventures of a woman in science. In S. Ruddick and P. Daniels (Eds.), Working it out (pp. 241-250), New York, NY: Pantheon Books.