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Histories of Feminism

The following resources are historical or contextual accounts of feminism and women's movements organized by country. These resources provide a framework for understanding the challenges and experiences of women in science by embedding them within the larger context of political struggles for gender equality and the meanings of feminism over time and in diverse geopolitical locations. This list is preliminary and incomplete. We welcome suggestions for additional resources.



Magarey, S. (2001). Passions of the first wave feminists. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press. 



Holton, S. S. (1986). Feminism and democracy: Women’s suffrage and reform politics in Britain, 1900-1918. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


Pugh, M. (1992). Women and the women’s movement in Britain, 1914-1959. New York: Macmillan.


Pugh, M. (2000). The march of the women: A revisionist analysis of the campaign for women’s suffrage, 1866-1914. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Smith, H. (Ed.) (1990). British feminism in the 20th century. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.


van Wingerden, S. A. (1999). The women’s suffrage movement in Britain, 1866-1928. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 



Bacchi, C. L. (1983). Liberation deferred? The ideas of the English-Canadian suffragists, 1877-1918. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


Backhouse, C., & Flaherty, D. H. (Eds). (1992). Challenging time: The women’s movement in Canada and the United States. Montreal, QC and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.


Cleverdon, C. L. (1978). The woman suffrage movement in Canada: The start of liberation (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.


Kealey, L. (1979). A not unreasonable claim: Women and reform in Canada, 1880s-1920s. Toronto: Women’s Educational Press.


Luxton, M. (2001). Feminism as a class act: Working-class Feminism and the women’s movement in Canada. Labour/Le Travail, 48, 63-88.


Maillé, C. (2000). Féminisme et movement des femmes au Québec. Un bilan complexe [Feminism and the women’s movement in Quebec. A complex assessment]. Globe: Revue international d’études québécoises, 3(2), 87-105. Doi: 10.7202/1000583ar


Millar, N. (2003). The famous five: A pivotal moment in Canadian women’s history. Calgary: Deadwood Publishing.


Rebick, J. (2005). Ten thousand roses: The making of a feminist revolution. Toronto: Penguin Canada.



Edwards, L. (2000). Women’s suffrage in China: Challenging scholarly conventions. Pacific Historical Review, 69(4), 617-638.



Bidelman, P. K. (1982). Pariahs stand up! The founding of the liberal Feminist movement in France, 1858-1889. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


Moses, C. G. (1984). French feminism in the 19th century. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.



Evans, R. J. (1976). The feminist movement in Germany, 1894-1933. London: Sage Publications.



Owens, R. C. (1995). Smashing times: A history of the Irish women’s suffrage movement, 1889-1922. Dublin, Ireland: Attic Press.



Fujieda, M. (1995). Japan’s first phase of feminism. In K. Fujimura-Fanselow, & A. Kameda (Eds), Japanese women: New feminist perspectives on the past, present, and future (pp. 323-342). New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York. 


Tanaka, K. (1995). The new feminist movement in Japan, 1970-1990. In K. Fujimura-Fanselow, & A. Kameda (Eds), Japanese women: New Feminist perspectives on the past, present, and future (pp. 343-352). New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York. 




Macales, A. (1982). Against all odds: The feminist movement in Mexico to 1940. Westport, CA and London: Greenwood Press.



Stites, R. (1978). The women’s liberation movement in Russia: Feminism, nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1960-1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press.



Tripp, A. M., & Kwesiga, J. C. (Eds.). (2002). The women’s movement in Uganda: History, challenges, and prospects. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.


United States



Klinghoffer, J. A., & Elkis, L. (1992). “The petticoat electors”: Women’s suffrage in New Jersey, 1776-1807. Journal of the Early Republic, 12(2), 159-193.


Lerner, G. (1994). The creation of feminist consciousness: From the Middle Ages to eighteen-seventy. New York: Oxford University Press.


Stansell, C. (2010). The feminist promise: 1792-present. New York: The Modern Library.




Adams, K. & Keene, M. L. (2007). Alice Paul and the American suffrage campaign. Champaign., IL: University of Illinois Press.


Brown, D. M. (1987). Setting a course: American women in the 1920s. Boston: Twayne Publishers.


Cooney, R. P. J., Jr. (2005). Winning the vote: The triumph of the American woman suffrage movement. Santa Cruz, CA: American Graphic Press.


DuBois, E. C. (1999). Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women’s movement in America, 1848-1869. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Garner, L. (1984). Stepping stones to women’s liberty: Feminist ideas in the women’s suffrage movement, 1900-1918. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.


Hartmann, S. M. (1982). The home front and beyond: American women in the 1940s. Boston: Twayne Publishers.


Higginbotham, E. B. (1993). Righteous discontent: The women’s movement in the Black Baptist church, 1880-1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Leach, W. (1980). True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society. New York: Basic Books.


Terborg-Penn, R. (1998). African American women in the struggle for the vote, 1850-1920. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.


Ware, S. (1982). Holding their own: American women in the 1930s. Boston: Twayne Publishers.


White, Deborah Gray (1999). Too heavy a load: Black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994. New York: Norton.




Breines, W. (2007). The trouble between us: An uneasy history of White and Black women in the feminist movement. New York and London: Oxford University Press.


Brownmiller, S. (2000). In our time: Memoir of a revolution. New York: The Dial Press. 


Cobble, D. S., Gordon, L. & Henry, A. (2014). Feminism unfinished: A short, surprising history of American women's movements. New York: Norton.


Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: The amazing journey of American women from 1960 to the present. New York: Little, Brown and Company.


Coontz, S. (2011). A strange stirring: The Feminine Mystique and American women at the dawn of the 1960s. New York: Basic Books.


Davis, F. (1991). Moving the mountain: The women’s movement in America since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Echols, A. (1989). Daring to be bad: Radical feminism in America 1967-1975. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.


Ezekiel, J. (2002). Feminism in the heartland. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press.


Farmer, A. D. (2017). Remaking Black Power: How Black women transformed an era. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.


Gilmore, S. (2008). Feminist coalitions: Historical perspectives on second wave feminism in the United States. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.


Henold, M. J. (2008). Catholic and feminist: The surprising history of the American Catholic Feminist movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 


Love, B. (Ed.). (2006). Feminists who changed America. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.


Nelson, J. (2003). Women of color and the reproductive rights movement. New York: New York University Press.


Orleck, A. (2015). Rethinking American women's activism. New York: Routledge.


Rosen, R. (2000). The world split open: How the women’s movement changed America. New York: Penguin.


Roth, B. (2004). Separate roads to feminism: Black, Chicana, and White feminist movements in America's second wave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Spencer, R. C. (2016). The revolution has come: Black Power, gender, and the Black Panther party in Oakland. Durham and London: Duke University Press.


Springer, K. (2005). Living for the revolution: Black feminist organizations, 1968-1980. Durham, NC: University of North Carolia Press.


Valk, A. M. (2008). Radical sisters: Second wave feminism and Black liberation in Washington, DC. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.


Whittier, N. (1995). Feminist generations: The persistence of the radical women’s movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.




Henry, A. (2004). Not my mother’s sister: Generational conflict and third-wave Feminism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. 


Orr, C. M. (1997). Charting the currents of the third wave. Hypatia, 12(3), 29-45.




Hewitt, N. A. (2010). No permanent waves: Recasting histories of U. S. feminism. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.