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Timeline

Women, Gender, Feminism, and Psychology 1950-present 

1950-1959           

1953 - The Second Sex by feminist writer Simone De Beauvoir is published in the United States, using the term "women's liberation"  

 

1954 - U.S. Supreme Court cites graduate work of Mamie Phipps Clark in the Brown v. Board of Education decision making racial segregation of the public schools illegal   

1960-1969         

1962 - Martha Bernal: First Latina to earn a PhD in psychology, in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington

 

1962 - Naomi Weisstein stages her first women's liberation demonstration in front of Harvard's Lamont Library, which was still males-only

 

1963 - Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published and becomes a best-seller

 

1966 - National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded

 

1966 - Nancy Bayley: First woman to receive the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award for her contribution in developmental psychology

 

1967 - Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson institutes the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada in response to pressure by the women's movement         

 

1967 - Karen Horney's Feminine Psychology appears

 

1968 - Mary Jean Wright becomes first woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association

 

1968 - Association of Black Psychologists is founded, although its membership is mostly male

 

1968 - Naomi Weisstein presents her landmark paper, "Psychology Constructs the Female" an attack on sexism and methodology in psychology

 

1969 - Kate Millett's Sexual Politics, A Surprising Examination of Society's Most Arbitrary Folly becomes a widely-debated best seller         

 

1969 - At the annual APA convention, three symposia on the topic of "Women as Scientists and Subjects" bring together women representing Psychologists for Social Action, the New University Conference, NOW, and various other liberation groups, to focus on job discrimination and sexist practices at the APA Convention and in academia and the professions

 

1969 - Formation of the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP)

 

1969 - Founding of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union

 

1969 - Joann Evansgardner is the first (temporary) president of the AWP   

1970-1979         

1970 - At an APA Town Hall Meeting, with the support of AWP,  Phyllis Chesler and Nancy Henley, prepared a statement on APA's obligations to women and demanded one million dollars in reparation for the damage psychology had perpetrated against women's minds and bodies

 

1970 - Virginia Douglas becomes the second woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association

 

1970 - Helen Astin: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Psychology

 

1970 - Association Por La Raza (APLR) is formed

 

1970 - The Female Eunuch by Germaine Greer is published

 

1970 - Boston Women's Health Book Collective publishes the first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves which helps create a women's health movement

 

1970 - Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, and Bella Abzug lead the Women's Strike for Equality March up Fifth Avenue in NYC

 

1970 - Inge Broverman and colleagues publish their study showing that descriptions of a mentally healthy adult are closer to the descriptions of a healthy adult male than a healthy adult female

 

1971 - Carolyn Attneave: Forms The Network of Indian Psychologists

 

1971 - Creation of the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology (BSERP) in the APA

 

1972 - The Underground Symposium is held at the Canadian Psychological Association Convention. After having their individual papers and then a symposium rejected by the Program Committee, a group of six graduate students and untenured faculty, including Sandra Pyke and Esther Greenglass hold an independent research symposium which showcased work being done in the field of the psychology of women

 

1972 - Anne Anastasi: Third woman to be elected president of the APA

 

1972 - The Asian American Psychological Association is founded

 

1972 - Ms. Magazine makes its debut in a preview issue with Gloria Steinem as editor

 

1972 - Phyllis Chesler's Women and Madness is published

 

1972 - Matina Horner publishes her work on fear of success in women

 

1973 - the first commercial edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves by the Boston Women's Health Book Collective is published

 

1973 - Division 35, later the Society for the Psychology of Women, of the APA is formed

 

1973 - Elizabeth Douvan: First president of Division 35

 

1973 - Leona E. Tyler: Fourth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

1973 - The Committee on Women in Psychology, of the APA, is formed

 

1973 - Martha Mednick: First chair of the newly created APA Committee on Women in Psychology

 

1973 - Landmark legal decision in Roe v. Wade makes abortion legal in the United States

 

1974 - APA Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex-Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice is appointed

 

1974 - Sandra Bem publishes an article on the measurement of psychological androgyny, the Bem Sex Role Inventory

 

1974 - Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin publish the highly influential The Psychology of Sex Differences


1975 - Mary Wright: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology

 

1975 - Georgia Babladelis: First editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly

 

1975 - Denyse Barbet: First AWP representative to the United Nations

 

1975 - First APA sponsored Psychology of Women Conference

 

1975 - First issue of the journal Sex Roles published

 

1975 - First review article on psychology of women appears in the women's studies journal Signs, by Mary Parlee

 

1975 - The first time an article on the sub-field Psychology of Women is published in the prestigious Annual Review of Psychology

 

1975 - The first conference on Men and Masculinity is convened in Knoxville, Tennessee

 

1976 - Interest Group on Women and Psychology (IGWAP) is formed in the CPA

 

1976 - CPA Status of Women Committee is formed

 

1976 - Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women founded

 

1976 - APA Task Force on Non-Sexist Language is appointed

 

1976 - First issue of Psychology of Women Quarterly published

 

1976 - Division 35 Task Force on Black Women's Concerns appointed; Saundra Rice Murray, Gwendolyn Puryear, Winnie Emoungo, and Carolyn Payton are founding members

 

1976 - Psychiatrist Jean Baker Miller publishes Toward a New Psychology of Women proposing a relational model of women's development that informs a relational-cultural model of therapy

 

1976 - African-American psychologist Robert Val Guthrie publishes the first edition of Even the Rat Was White, the first African-American history of psychology; he profiles the lives and careers of several African American women psychologists

 

1976 - Ruth King: First woman president of the Association of Black Psychologists

 

1977 - Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association changed to prohibit sexual contact between therapist and client

 

1977 - Division 35 Task Force on the Concerns of Hispanic Women appointed

 

1977 - Genes and Gender Collective, headed by Ethel Tobach and biologist Betty Rosoff, is formed to challenge the use of genetic determinism to promote sexism and racism

 

1977 - Martha Bernal: First Chair of Division 35 Task Force on the Concern of Hispanic Women

 

1977 - Arnold Kahn: First male secretary-treasurer of Division 35

 

1977 - Women's Program Office in APA Headquarters founded

 

1977 - Nancy Felipe Russo: First officer of the newly established Women's Program Office in APA headquarters

 

1977 - Nancy Henley publishes Body Politics: Power, Sex, and Nonverbal Communication, an important feminist analysis of gender, power, and communication

 

1978 - Task Force on Black Women's Concerns becomes the Committee of Black Women's Concerns of Division 35

 

1978 - Pamela Trotman Reid: First president of the Committe of Black Women's Concerns

 

1978 - First Canadian Institute on Women and Psychology pre-convention conference hosted at CPA by IGWAP

 

1978 - Formation of the National Coalition of Psychologists for the Equal Rights Amendment.  The mission of the Coalition was to articulate the positive benefits of equality for both sexes as well as the integrity of the family. Dr. Nancy Felipe Russo served as National Coordinator for the Coalition

 

1978 - Gloria Steinem presents an invited address to the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in Toronto

 

1979 - Rhoda Unger publishes Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender in American Psychologist, highlighting the difference between the two terms for psychologists

1980-1989         

1980 - Florence L. Denmark: Fifth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

1980 - IGWAP becomes the Section on Women and Psychology in the CPA

 

1980 - Guidelines for Therapy and Counselling with Women is adopted by the CPA

 

1981 - Ellen Langer is the first woman to be granted tenure in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University

 

1981 - Vaira Vikis-Freiberg becomes the third woman president of the CPA

 

1981 - bell hooks publishes Ain't I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism

 

1981 - Stone Center (now the Jean Baker Miller Training Institute) established


1982 - First meeting of the Feminist Therapy Institute

 

1982 - The feminist journal Women & Therapy is launched

 

1982 -  Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice, Psychological Theory and Women's Development is published

 

1982 - Sandra Pyke becomes the fourth women president of the CPA

 

1982 - Stephanie Shields publishes The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence in Signs


1984 - Florence DenmarkCarolyn Payton, and Laurie Eyde receive the first American Psychological Association Committee on Women in Psychology Leadership Awards

 

1984 -  Janet Spence: Sixth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

1985 - Division 44, Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual issues is formed

 

1985 - Section 1 of Division 35, the Section on the Psychology of Black Women is formed

 

1985 - AWP presents "An International Feminist Mental Health Agenda for the Year 2000" at the final event of the U. N. Decade for Women conference in Nairobi, Kenya

 

1985 - Evelyn Fox Keller publishes Reflections on Gender and Science


1985 - Donna Haraway publishes A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century


1986 - AWP members picket the annual APA convention in protest of several new diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

 

1986 - Angela Ginorio: First chair of the newly founded Committee of the Concerns of Hispanic Women - the Committee replaced the previous Task Force founded in 1977

 

1987 - Bonnie Strickland: Seventh woman to be elected president of the APA

 

1987 - Elizabeth Scarborough and Laurel Furumoto publish Untold Lives: The First Generation of American Women Psychologists

 

1987 - Janet Stoppard leads the Women and Mental Health Committee of the Canadian Mental Health Association


1988 - Janet Spence: First president of the Association for Psychological Science

 

1988 - Mary Crawford chairs the newly founded Task Force on Feminist Research and Epistemology

 

1988 - Section 4 of Division 35, the Section for Lesbian and Bisexual Women's issues formed

 

1988 - Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society is established

 

1988 - Rachel Hare-Mustin and Jeanne Marecek publish The Meaning of Difference: Gender Theory, Postmodernism, and Psychology in American Psychologist

 

1989 - Historian Londa Schiebinger publishes The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science

 

1990-1999         

1990 - First issue of the Journal of Men's Studies published

 

1991 - First issue of Feminism & Psychology published

 

1991 - Susan Faludi's Backlash, The Undeclared War on American Women is published, documenting the backlash against the feminist movement         

 

1991 - feminist philosopher Sandra Harding publishes Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives


1992 - Report of the APA Task Force on Violence against Women

 

1992 - Carol Tavris publishes The Mismeasure of Women: Why Women are Not the Better Sex, the Inferior Sex, or the Opposite Sex

 

1992 - Stephanie Riger publishes Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science, Social Values, and the Study of Women inAmerican Psychologist


1993 - Sandra Bem publishes The Lenses of Gender, Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality

 

1995 - Christine Iijima Hall: First woman president of the Asian American Psychological Association

 

1995 - Report of the APA Task Force on the Changing Composition of Psychology

 

1995 - Division 35 becomes the 4th largest division of the APA

 

1996 - The Status of Women Committee of the CPA is dissolved

 

1996 - Dorothy Cantor: Eighth woman elected president of APA

 

1997 - Oliva Espin publishes Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality

 

1997 - The Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity is established (Division 51 of the APA)

 

1997 -  Pro-Choice Forum is established and sponsored by Division 35

 

1997 - The Women's Ways of Knowing Project which analyzed and coded 135 in-depth interviews asking women about their gender, relationships, ways of knowing, and moral dilemmas culminates in the book, Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind

 

1999 - The first National Multicultural Conference and Summit is held in California. It is sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, the Society for the Psychology of Women, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues

2000-2009         

2000 - Report of the APA Task Force on Women in Academe

 

2000 - Inaugural issue of the APA journal Psychology of Men and Masculinity

 

2000 - Chela Sandoval publishes Methodology of the Oppressed


2001 - Norine G. Johnson: Ninth woman to be elected president of the APA         

 

2004 - Diane F. Halpern: Tenth woman to be elected president of the APA         

 

2004 - March for Women's Lives in Washington, DC; an estimated one million people march to support women's reproductive rights

 

2004 - Paula Caplan and Lisa Cosgrove publish Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis, sponsored by the Association for Women in Psychology, part of a sustained, ongoing struggle against diagnostic labels that pathologize and harm women

 

2005 - Janet Shibley Hyde publishes the Gender Similarities Hypothesis in American Psychologist

 

2007 - Sharon Stephens Brehm: Eleventh woman to be elected president of the APA        

 

2007 - Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls 

 

2010 - Carol Goodheart: Twelfth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

2011 - Melba Vasquez: Thirteenth woman, and first woman of color, to be elected president of APA

 

2011 - The Society for the Psychology of Women Special Committee on Violence Against Women publishes a report on the trafficking of women and girls.

 


 

If you know of an important historical event that should be listed here,
please email the date and a few lines about the event to alexr [@] yorku.ca.
Links to further information and photos (with proper permissions) are also appreciated.