Psychology's Feminist Voices
Women PastFeminist PresenceAbout Us

Twitter YouTube Follow us on Facebook Changing Face of Feminist Psychology: watch the video


Timeline

Women, Gender, Feminism, and Psychology in the United States and Canada

1950-present 

1953

 

The Second Sex by feminist writer Simone De Beauvoir is published in the United States, using the term "women's liberation"  


 

1954

 

U.S. Supreme Court cites graduate work of Mamie Phipps Clark in the Brown v. Board of Education decision making racial segregation of the public schools illegal


 

1962

 

Martha Bernal: First Latina to earn a PhD in psychology, in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington


Naomi Weisstein stages her first women's liberation demonstration in front of Harvard's Lamont Library, which was still males-only

 

 

1963

 

Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published and becomes a best-seller

 

 

1966

 

National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded

 

Nancy Bayley: First woman to receive the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award for her contribution in developmental psychology

 


1967

 

Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson institutes the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada in response to pressure by the women's movement

 

Karen Horney's Feminine Psychology appears

 

 

1968

 

Mary Jean Wright becomes first woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association

 

Association of Black Psychologists is founded, although its membership is mostly male

 

Naomi Weisstein presents her landmark paper, "Psychology Constructs the Female" an attack on sexism and methodology in psychology

 

 

1969


 

Kate Millett's Sexual Politics, A Surprising Examination of Society's Most Arbitrary Folly becomes a widely-debated best seller

 

At the annual APA convention, three symposia on the topic of "Women as Scientists and Subjects" bring together women representing

 

Psychologists for Social Action, the New University Conference, NOW, and various other liberation groups, to focus on job discrimination and sexist practices at the APA Convention and in academia and the professions

 

Formation of the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP)

 

Founding of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union

 

Joann Evansgardner is the first (temporary) president of the AWP  


 

1970

 

At an APA Town Hall Meeting, with the support of AWP,  Phyllis Chesler and Nancy Henley, prepared a statement on APA's obligations to women and demanded one million dollars in reparation for the damage psychology had perpetrated against women's minds and bodies

 

Virginia Douglas becomes the second woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association

 

Helen Astin: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Psychology

 

Association Por La Raza (APLR) is formed

 

The Female Eunuch by Germaine Greer is published

 

Boston Women's Health Book Collective publishes the first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves which helps create a women's health movement

 

Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, and Bella Abzug lead the Women's Strike for Equality March up Fifth Avenue in NYC

 

Inge Broverman and colleagues publish their study showing that descriptions of a mentally healthy adult are closer to the descriptions of a healthy adult male than a healthy adult female

 

 

1971

 

Carolyn Attneave: Forms The Network of Indian Psychologists


Creation of the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology (BSERP) in the APA


 

1972

 

The Underground Symposium is held at the Canadian Psychological Association Convention. After having their individual papers and then a symposium rejected by the Program Committee, a group of six graduate students and untenured faculty, including Sandra Pyke and Esther Greenglass hold an independent research symposium which showcased work being done in the field of the psychology of women


Anne Anastasi: Third woman to be elected president of the APA

 

The Asian American Psychological Association is founded

 

Ms. Magazine makes its debut in a preview issue with Gloria Steinem as editor

 

Phyllis Chesler's Women and Madness is published

 

Matina Horner publishes her work on fear of success in women

 

 

1973

 

The first commercial edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves by the Boston Women's Health Book Collective is published


Division 35, later the Society for the Psychology of Women, of the APA is formed


Elizabeth Douvan: First president of Division 35


Leona E. Tyler: Fourth woman to be elected president of the APA


The Committee on Women in Psychology, of the APA, is formed


Martha Mednick: First chair of the newly created APA Committee on Women in Psychology


Landmark legal decision in Roe v. Wade makes abortion legal in the United States


 

1974

 

APA Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex-Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice is appointed


Sandra Bem publishes an article on the measurement of psychological androgyny, the Bem Sex Role Inventory


Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin publish the highly influentialThe Psychology of Sex Differences


 

1975

 

Mary Wright: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology

 

Georgia Babladelis: First editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly


Denyse Barbet: First AWP representative to the United Nations


First APA sponsored Psychology of Women Conference


First issue of the journal Sex Roles published


First review article on psychology of women appears in the women's studies journal Signs, by Mary Parlee


The first time an article on the sub-field Psychology of Women is published in the prestigious Annual Review of Psychology


The first conference on Men and Masculinity is convened in Knoxville, Tennessee


 

1976

 

Interest Group on Women and Psychology (IGWAP) is formed in the CPA

 

CPA Status of Women Committee is formed

 

Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women founded

 

Division 35 Task Force on Black Women's Concerns appointed; Saundra Rice Murray, Gwendolyn Puryear, Winnie Emoungo, and Carolyn Payton are founding members

 

APA Task Force on Non-Sexist Language is appointed

 

First issue of Psychology of Women Quarterly published

 

Psychiatrist Jean Baker Miller publishes Toward a New Psychology of Women proposing a relational model of women's development that informs a relational-cultural model of therapy

 

African-American psychologist Robert Val Guthrie publishes the first edition of Even the Rat Was White, the first African-American history of psychology; he profiles the lives and careers of several African American women psychologists

 

Ruth King: First woman president of the Association of Black Psychologists

 

 

1977

 

Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association changed to prohibit sexual contact between therapist and client

 

Division 35 Task Force on the Concerns of Hispanic Women appointed

 

Genes and Gender Collective, headed by Ethel Tobach and biologist Betty Rosoff, is formed to challenge the use of genetic determinism to promote sexism and racism

 

Martha Bernal: First Chair of Division 35 Task Force on the Concern of Hispanic Women

 

Arnold Kahn: First male secretary-treasurer of Division 35

 

Women's Program Office in APA Headquarters founded

 

Nancy Felipe Russo: First officer of the newly established Women's Program Office in APA headquarters

 

Nancy Henley publishes Body Politics: Power, Sex, and Nonverbal Communication, an important feminist analysis of gender, power, and communication

 

 

1978

 

Task Force on Black Women's Concerns becomes the Committee of Black Women's Concerns of Division 35

 

Pamela Trotman Reid: First president of the Committee of Black Women's Concerns

 

First Canadian Institute on Women and Psychology pre-convention conference hosted at CPA by IGWAP

 

Formation of the National Coalition of Psychologists for the Equal Rights Amendment.  The mission of the Coalition was to articulate the positive benefits of equality for both sexes as well as the integrity of the family. Dr. Nancy Felipe Russo served as National Coordinator for the Coalition

 

Gloria Steinem presents an invited address to the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in Toronto

 

 

1979

 

Rhoda Unger publishes Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender American Psychologist, highlighting the difference between the two terms for psychologists

 

 

1980

 

Florence L. Denmark: Fifth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

IGWAP becomes the Section on Women and Psychology in the CPA

 

Guidelines for Therapy and Counselling with Women is adopted by the CPA

 

 

1981

 

Ellen Langer is the first woman to be granted tenure in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University

 

Vaira Vikis-Freiberg becomes the third woman president of the CPA

 

Bell Hooks publishes Ain't I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism


Stone Center (now the Jean Baker Miller Training Institute) established

 

 

1982

 

First meeting of the Feminist Therapy Institute

 

The feminist journal Women & Therapy is launched

 

Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice, Psychological Theory and Women's Development is published

 

Sandra Pyke becomes the fourth women president of the CPA

 

Stephanie Shields publishes The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence in Signs


 

1984

 

Florence DenmarkCarolyn Payton, and Laurie Eyde receive the first American Psychological Association Committee on Women in Psychology Leadership Awards

 

 Janet Spence: Sixth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

 

1985

 

Division 44, Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual issues is formed

 

Section 1 of Division 35, the Section on the Psychology of Black Women is formed

 

AWP presents "An International Feminist Mental Health Agenda for the Year 2000" at the final event of the U. N. Decade for Women conference in Nairobi, Kenya

 

Evelyn Fox Keller publishes Reflections on Gender and Science


Donna Haraway publishes A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century


 

1986

 

AWP members picket the annual APA convention in protest of several new diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

 

Angela Ginorio: First chair of the newly founded Committee of the Concerns of Hispanic Women - the Committee replaced the previous Task Force founded in 1977

 

 

1987

 

Bonnie Strickland: Seventh woman to be elected president of the APA

 

Elizabeth Scarborough and Laurel Furumoto publish Untold Lives: The First Generation of American Women Psychologists


Janet Stoppard leads the Women and Mental Health Committee of the Canadian Mental Health Association

 

 

1988

 

Janet Spence: First president of the Association for Psychological Science

 

Mary Crawford chairs the newly founded Task Force on Feminist Research and Epistemology

 

Section 4 of Division 35, the Section for Lesbian and Bisexual Women's issues formed

 

Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society is established

 

Rachel Hare-Mustin and Jeanne Marecek publish The Meaning of Difference: Gender Theory, Postmodernism, and Psychology in American Psychologist


 

1989

 

Historian Londa Schiebinger publishes The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science


 

1990

 

First issue of the Journal of Men's Studies published

 

 

1991

 

First issue of Feminism & Psychology published

 

Susan Faludi's Backlash, The Undeclared War on American Women is published, documenting the backlash against the feminist movement  

 

feminist philosopher Sandra Harding publishes Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives


 

1992

 

Report of the APA Task Force on Violence against Women

 

Carol Tavris publishes The Mismeasure of Women: Why Women are Not the Better Sex, the Inferior Sex, or the Opposite Sex


Stephanie Riger publishes Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science, Social Values, and the Study of Women inAmerican Psychologist


 

1993

 

Sandra Bem publishes The Lenses of Gender, Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality


 

1995

 

Christine Iijima Hall: First woman president of the Asian American Psychological Association

 

Report of the APA Task Force on the Changing Composition of Psychology

 

Division 35 becomes the 4th largest division of the APA

 

 

1996

 

The Status of Women Committee of the CPA is dissolved

 

Dorothy Cantor: Eighth woman elected president of APA

 

 

1997

 

Oliva Espin publishes Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality


The Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity is established (Division 51 of the APA)

 

Pro-Choice Forum is established and sponsored by Division 35

 

The Women's Ways of Knowing Project which analyzed and coded 135 in-depth interviews asking women about their gender, relationships, ways of knowing, and moral dilemmas culminates in the book, Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind


 

1999

 

The first National Multicultural Conference and Summit is held in California. It is sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, the Society for the Psychology of Women, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues

 

 

2000

 

Report of the APA Task Force on Women in Academe

 

Inaugural issue of the APA journal Psychology of Men and Masculinity


Chela Sandoval publishes Methodology of the Oppressed


 

2001

 

Norine G. Johnson: Ninth woman to be elected president of the APA 

 

 

2004

 

Diane F. Halpern: Tenth woman to be elected president of the APA   

 

March for Women's Lives in Washington, DC; an estimated one million people march to support women's reproductive rights

 

Paula Caplan and Lisa Cosgrove publish Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis, sponsored by the Association for Women in Psychology, part of a sustained, ongoing struggle against diagnostic labels that pathologize and harm women

 

 

2005

 

Janet Shibley Hyde publishes the Gender Similarities Hypothesis in American Psychologist


 

2007

 

Sharon Stephens Brehm: Eleventh woman to be elected president of the APA 

 

Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls

 

 

2010

 

Carol Goodheart: Twelfth woman to be elected president of the APA

 

 

2011

 

Melba Vasquez: Thirteenth woman, and first woman of color, to be elected president of APA

 

The Society for the Psychology of Women Special Committee on Violence Against Women publishes a report on the trafficking of women and girls.

 

 

 

 


 

If you know of an important historical event that should be listed here,email the date and afew lines about the event
to alexr [@] yorku.caLinks to further information and photos with proper permissions are also appreciated.