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Women, Gender, Feminism, and Psychology in the United States and Canada, 1950-present 


1953 - The Second Sex by feminist writer Simone De Beauvoir is published in the United States, using the term "women's liberation"  


1954 - U.S. Supreme Court cites graduate work of Mamie Phipps Clark in the Brown v. Board of Education decision making racial segregation of the public schools illegal   


1962 - Martha Bernal: First Latina to earn a PhD in psychology, in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington


1962 - Naomi Weisstein stages her first women's liberation demonstration in front of Harvard's Lamont Library, which was still males-only


1963 - Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published and becomes a best-seller


1966 - National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded


1966 - Nancy Bayley: First woman to receive the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award for her contribution in developmental psychology


1967 - Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson institutes the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada in response to pressure by the women's movement         


1967 - Karen Horney's Feminine Psychology appears


1968 - Mary Jean Wright becomes first woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association


1968 - Association of Black Psychologists is founded, although its membership is mostly male


1968 - Naomi Weisstein presents her landmark paper, "Psychology Constructs the Female" an attack on sexism and methodology in psychology


1969 - Kate Millett's Sexual Politics, A Surprising Examination of Society's Most Arbitrary Folly becomes a widely-debated best seller         


1969 - At the annual APA convention, three symposia on the topic of "Women as Scientists and Subjects" bring together women representing Psychologists for Social Action, the New University Conference, NOW, and various other liberation groups, to focus on job discrimination and sexist practices at the APA Convention and in academia and the professions


1969 - Formation of the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP)


1969 - Founding of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union


1969 - Joann Evansgardner is the first (temporary) president of the AWP   


1970 - At an APA Town Hall Meeting, with the support of AWP,  Phyllis Chesler and Nancy Henley, prepared a statement on APA's obligations to women and demanded one million dollars in reparation for the damage psychology had perpetrated against women's minds and bodies


1970 - Virginia Douglas becomes the second woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association


1970 - Helen Astin: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Psychology


1970 - Association Por La Raza (APLR) is formed


1970 - The Female Eunuch by Germaine Greer is published


1970 - Boston Women's Health Book Collective publishes the first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves which helps create a women's health movement


1970 - Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, and Bella Abzug lead the Women's Strike for Equality March up Fifth Avenue in NYC


1970 - Inge Broverman and colleagues publish their study showing that descriptions of a mentally healthy adult are closer to the descriptions of a healthy adult male than a healthy adult female


1971 - Carolyn Attneave: Forms The Network of Indian Psychologists


1971 - Creation of the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology (BSERP) in the APA


1972 - The Underground Symposium is held at the Canadian Psychological Association Convention. After having their individual papers and then a symposium rejected by the Program Committee, a group of six graduate students and untenured faculty, including Sandra Pyke and Esther Greenglass hold an independent research symposium which showcased work being done in the field of the psychology of women


1972 - Anne Anastasi: Third woman to be elected president of the APA


1972 - The Asian American Psychological Association is founded


1972 - Ms. Magazine makes its debut in a preview issue with Gloria Steinem as editor


1972 - Phyllis Chesler's Women and Madness is published


1972 - Matina Horner publishes her work on fear of success in women


1973 - the first commercial edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves by the Boston Women's Health Book Collective is published


1973 - Division 35, later the Society for the Psychology of Women, of the APA is formed


1973 - Elizabeth Douvan: First president of Division 35


1973 - Leona E. Tyler: Fourth woman to be elected president of the APA


1973 - The Committee on Women in Psychology, of the APA, is formed


1973 - Martha Mednick: First chair of the newly created APA Committee on Women in Psychology


1973 - Landmark legal decision in Roe v. Wade makes abortion legal in the United States


1974 - APA Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex-Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice is appointed


1974 - Sandra Bem publishes an article on the measurement of psychological androgyny, the Bem Sex Role Inventory


1974 - Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin publish the highly influential The Psychology of Sex Differences

1975 - Mary Wright: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology


1975 - Georgia Babladelis: First editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly


1975 - Denyse Barbet: First AWP representative to the United Nations


1975 - First APA sponsored Psychology of Women Conference


1975 - First issue of the journal Sex Roles published


1975 - First review article on psychology of women appears in the women's studies journal Signs, by Mary Parlee


1975 - The first time an article on the sub-field Psychology of Women is published in the prestigious Annual Review of Psychology


1975 - The first conference on Men and Masculinity is convened in Knoxville, Tennessee


1976 - Interest Group on Women and Psychology (IGWAP) is formed in the CPA


1976 - CPA Status of Women Committee is formed


1976 - Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women founded


1976 - APA Task Force on Non-Sexist Language is appointed


1976 - First issue of Psychology of Women Quarterly published


1976 - Division 35 Task Force on Black Women's Concerns appointed; Saundra Rice Murray, Gwendolyn Puryear, Winnie Emoungo, and Carolyn Payton are founding members


1976 - Psychiatrist Jean Baker Miller publishes Toward a New Psychology of Women proposing a relational model of women's development that informs a relational-cultural model of therapy


1976 - African-American psychologist Robert Val Guthrie publishes the first edition of Even the Rat Was White, the first African-American history of psychology; he profiles the lives and careers of several African American women psychologists


1976 - Ruth King: First woman president of the Association of Black Psychologists


1977 - Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association changed to prohibit sexual contact between therapist and client


1977 - Division 35 Task Force on the Concerns of Hispanic Women appointed


1977 - Genes and Gender Collective, headed by Ethel Tobach and biologist Betty Rosoff, is formed to challenge the use of genetic determinism to promote sexism and racism


1977 - Martha Bernal: First Chair of Division 35 Task Force on the Concern of Hispanic Women


1977 - Arnold Kahn: First male secretary-treasurer of Division 35


1977 - Women's Program Office in APA Headquarters founded


1977 - Nancy Felipe Russo: First officer of the newly established Women's Program Office in APA headquarters


1977 - Nancy Henley publishes Body Politics: Power, Sex, and Nonverbal Communication, an important feminist analysis of gender, power, and communication


1978 - Task Force on Black Women's Concerns becomes the Committee of Black Women's Concerns of Division 35


1978 - Pamela Trotman Reid: First president of the Committe of Black Women's Concerns


1978 - First Canadian Institute on Women and Psychology pre-convention conference hosted at CPA by IGWAP


1978 - Formation of the National Coalition of Psychologists for the Equal Rights Amendment.  The mission of the Coalition was to articulate the positive benefits of equality for both sexes as well as the integrity of the family. Dr. Nancy Felipe Russo served as National Coordinator for the Coalition


1978 - Gloria Steinem presents an invited address to the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in Toronto


1979 - Rhoda Unger publishes Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender in American Psychologist, highlighting the difference between the two terms for psychologists


1980 - Florence L. Denmark: Fifth woman to be elected president of the APA


1980 - IGWAP becomes the Section on Women and Psychology in the CPA


1980 - Guidelines for Therapy and Counselling with Women is adopted by the CPA


1981 - Ellen Langer is the first woman to be granted tenure in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University


1981 - Vaira Vikis-Freiberg becomes the third woman president of the CPA


1981 - bell hooks publishes Ain't I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism


1981 - Stone Center (now the Jean Baker Miller Training Institute) established

1982 - First meeting of the Feminist Therapy Institute


1982 - The feminist journal Women & Therapy is launched


1982 -  Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice, Psychological Theory and Women's Development is published


1982 - Sandra Pyke becomes the fourth women president of the CPA


1982 - Stephanie Shields publishes The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence in Signs

1984 - Florence DenmarkCarolyn Payton, and Laurie Eyde receive the first American Psychological Association Committee on Women in Psychology Leadership Awards


1984 -  Janet Spence: Sixth woman to be elected president of the APA


1985 - Division 44, Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual issues is formed


1985 - Section 1 of Division 35, the Section on the Psychology of Black Women is formed


1985 - AWP presents "An International Feminist Mental Health Agenda for the Year 2000" at the final event of the U. N. Decade for Women conference in Nairobi, Kenya


1985 - Evelyn Fox Keller publishes Reflections on Gender and Science

1985 - Donna Haraway publishes A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century

1986 - AWP members picket the annual APA convention in protest of several new diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


1986 - Angela Ginorio: First chair of the newly founded Committee of the Concerns of Hispanic Women - the Committee replaced the previous Task Force founded in 1977


1987 - Bonnie Strickland: Seventh woman to be elected president of the APA


1987 - Elizabeth Scarborough and Laurel Furumoto publish Untold Lives: The First Generation of American Women Psychologists


1987 - Janet Stoppard leads the Women and Mental Health Committee of the Canadian Mental Health Association

1988 - Janet Spence: First president of the Association for Psychological Science


1988 - Mary Crawford chairs the newly founded Task Force on Feminist Research and Epistemology


1988 - Section 4 of Division 35, the Section for Lesbian and Bisexual Women's issues formed


1988 - Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society is established


1988 - Rachel Hare-Mustin and Jeanne Marecek publish The Meaning of Difference: Gender Theory, Postmodernism, and Psychology in American Psychologist


1989 - Historian Londa Schiebinger publishes The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science



1990 - First issue of the Journal of Men's Studies published


1991 - First issue of Feminism & Psychology published


1991 - Susan Faludi's Backlash, The Undeclared War on American Women is published, documenting the backlash against the feminist movement         


1991 - feminist philosopher Sandra Harding publishes Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives

1992 - Report of the APA Task Force on Violence against Women


1992 - Carol Tavris publishes The Mismeasure of Women: Why Women are Not the Better Sex, the Inferior Sex, or the Opposite Sex


1992 - Stephanie Riger publishes Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science, Social Values, and the Study of Women inAmerican Psychologist

1993 - Sandra Bem publishes The Lenses of Gender, Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality


1995 - Christine Iijima Hall: First woman president of the Asian American Psychological Association


1995 - Report of the APA Task Force on the Changing Composition of Psychology


1995 - Division 35 becomes the 4th largest division of the APA


1996 - The Status of Women Committee of the CPA is dissolved


1996 - Dorothy Cantor: Eighth woman elected president of APA


1997 - Oliva Espin publishes Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality


1997 - The Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity is established (Division 51 of the APA)


1997 -  Pro-Choice Forum is established and sponsored by Division 35


1997 - The Women's Ways of Knowing Project which analyzed and coded 135 in-depth interviews asking women about their gender, relationships, ways of knowing, and moral dilemmas culminates in the book, Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind


1999 - The first National Multicultural Conference and Summit is held in California. It is sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, the Society for the Psychology of Women, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues


2000 - Report of the APA Task Force on Women in Academe


2000 - Inaugural issue of the APA journal Psychology of Men and Masculinity


2000 - Chela Sandoval publishes Methodology of the Oppressed

2001 - Norine G. Johnson: Ninth woman to be elected president of the APA         


2004 - Diane F. Halpern: Tenth woman to be elected president of the APA         


2004 - March for Women's Lives in Washington, DC; an estimated one million people march to support women's reproductive rights


2004 - Paula Caplan and Lisa Cosgrove publish Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis, sponsored by the Association for Women in Psychology, part of a sustained, ongoing struggle against diagnostic labels that pathologize and harm women


2005 - Janet Shibley Hyde publishes the Gender Similarities Hypothesis in American Psychologist


2007 - Sharon Stephens Brehm: Eleventh woman to be elected president of the APA        


2007 - Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls 


2010 - Carol Goodheart: Twelfth woman to be elected president of the APA


2011 - Melba Vasquez: Thirteenth woman, and first woman of color, to be elected president of APA


2011 - The Society for the Psychology of Women Special Committee on Violence Against Women publishes a report on the trafficking of women and girls.



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