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Women, Gender, Feminism, and Psychology in the United States and Canada




The Second Sex by feminist writer Simone De Beauvoir is published in the United States, using the term "women's liberation"  




U.S. Supreme Court cites graduate work of Mamie Phipps Clark in the Brown v. Board of Education decision making racial segregation of the public schools illegal




Martha Bernal: First Latina to earn a PhD in psychology, in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington

Naomi Weisstein stages her first women's liberation demonstration in front of Harvard's Lamont Library, which was still males-only





Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published and becomes a best-seller





National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded


Nancy Bayley: First woman to receive the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award for her contribution in developmental psychology




Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson institutes the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada in response to pressure by the women's movement


Karen Horney's Feminine Psychology appears





Mary Jean Wright becomes first woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association


Association of Black Psychologists is founded, although its membership is mostly male


Naomi Weisstein presents her landmark paper, "Psychology Constructs the Female" an attack on sexism and methodology in psychology





Kate Millett's Sexual Politics, A Surprising Examination of Society's Most Arbitrary Folly becomes a widely-debated best seller


At the annual APA convention, three symposia on the topic of "Women as Scientists and Subjects" bring together women representing


Psychologists for Social Action, the New University Conference, NOW, and various other liberation groups, to focus on job discrimination and sexist practices at the APA Convention and in academia and the professions


Formation of the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP)


Founding of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union


Joann Evansgardner is the first (temporary) president of the AWP  




At an APA Town Hall Meeting, with the support of AWP,  Phyllis Chesler and Nancy Henley, prepared a statement on APA's obligations to women and demanded one million dollars in reparation for the damage psychology had perpetrated against women's minds and bodies


Virginia Douglas becomes the second woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association


Helen Astin: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Psychology


Association Por La Raza (APLR) is formed


The Female Eunuch by Germaine Greer is published


Boston Women's Health Book Collective publishes the first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves which helps create a women's health movement


Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, and Bella Abzug lead the Women's Strike for Equality March up Fifth Avenue in NYC


Inge Broverman and colleagues publish their study showing that descriptions of a mentally healthy adult are closer to the descriptions of a healthy adult male than a healthy adult female





Carolyn Attneave: Forms The Network of Indian Psychologists

Creation of the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology (BSERP) in the APA




The Underground Symposium is held at the Canadian Psychological Association Convention. After having their individual papers and then a symposium rejected by the Program Committee, a group of six graduate students and untenured faculty, including Sandra Pyke and Esther Greenglass hold an independent research symposium which showcased work being done in the field of the psychology of women

Anne Anastasi: Third woman to be elected president of the APA


The Asian American Psychological Association is founded


Ms. Magazine makes its debut in a preview issue with Gloria Steinem as editor


Phyllis Chesler's Women and Madness is published


Matina Horner publishes her work on fear of success in women





The first commercial edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves by the Boston Women's Health Book Collective is published

Division 35, later the Society for the Psychology of Women, of the APA is formed

Elizabeth Douvan: First president of Division 35

Leona E. Tyler: Fourth woman to be elected president of the APA

The Committee on Women in Psychology, of the APA, is formed

Martha Mednick: First chair of the newly created APA Committee on Women in Psychology

Landmark legal decision in Roe v. Wade makes abortion legal in the United States




APA Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex-Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice is appointed

Sandra Bem publishes an article on the measurement of psychological androgyny, the Bem Sex Role Inventory

Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin publish the highly influentialThe Psychology of Sex Differences




Mary Wright: First chair of the newly founded Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology


Georgia Babladelis: First editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly

Denyse Barbet: First AWP representative to the United Nations

First APA sponsored Psychology of Women Conference

First issue of the journal Sex Roles published

First review article on psychology of women appears in the women's studies journal Signs, by Mary Parlee

The first time an article on the sub-field Psychology of Women is published in the prestigious Annual Review of Psychology

The first conference on Men and Masculinity is convened in Knoxville, Tennessee




Interest Group on Women and Psychology (IGWAP) is formed in the CPA


CPA Status of Women Committee is formed


Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women founded


Division 35 Task Force on Black Women's Concerns appointed; Saundra Rice Murray, Gwendolyn Puryear, Winnie Emoungo, and Carolyn Payton are founding members


APA Task Force on Non-Sexist Language is appointed


First issue of Psychology of Women Quarterly published


Psychiatrist Jean Baker Miller publishes Toward a New Psychology of Women proposing a relational model of women's development that informs a relational-cultural model of therapy


African-American psychologist Robert Val Guthrie publishes the first edition of Even the Rat Was White, the first African-American history of psychology; he profiles the lives and careers of several African American women psychologists


Ruth King: First woman president of the Association of Black Psychologists





Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association changed to prohibit sexual contact between therapist and client


Division 35 Task Force on the Concerns of Hispanic Women appointed


Genes and Gender Collective, headed by Ethel Tobach and biologist Betty Rosoff, is formed to challenge the use of genetic determinism to promote sexism and racism


Martha Bernal: First Chair of Division 35 Task Force on the Concern of Hispanic Women


Arnold Kahn: First male secretary-treasurer of Division 35


Women's Program Office in APA Headquarters founded


Nancy Felipe Russo: First officer of the newly established Women's Program Office in APA headquarters


Nancy Henley publishes Body Politics: Power, Sex, and Nonverbal Communication, an important feminist analysis of gender, power, and communication





Task Force on Black Women's Concerns becomes the Committee of Black Women's Concerns of Division 35


Pamela Trotman Reid: First president of the Committee of Black Women's Concerns


First Canadian Institute on Women and Psychology pre-convention conference hosted at CPA by IGWAP


Formation of the National Coalition of Psychologists for the Equal Rights Amendment.  The mission of the Coalition was to articulate the positive benefits of equality for both sexes as well as the integrity of the family. Dr. Nancy Felipe Russo served as National Coordinator for the Coalition


Gloria Steinem presents an invited address to the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in Toronto





Rhoda Unger publishes Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender American Psychologist, highlighting the difference between the two terms for psychologists





Florence L. Denmark: Fifth woman to be elected president of the APA


IGWAP becomes the Section on Women and Psychology in the CPA


Guidelines for Therapy and Counselling with Women is adopted by the CPA





Ellen Langer is the first woman to be granted tenure in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University


Vaira Vikis-Freiberg becomes the third woman president of the CPA


Bell Hooks publishes Ain't I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism

Stone Center (now the Jean Baker Miller Training Institute) established





First meeting of the Feminist Therapy Institute


The feminist journal Women & Therapy is launched


Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice, Psychological Theory and Women's Development is published


Sandra Pyke becomes the fourth women president of the CPA


Stephanie Shields publishes The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence in Signs




Florence DenmarkCarolyn Payton, and Laurie Eyde receive the first American Psychological Association Committee on Women in Psychology Leadership Awards


 Janet Spence: Sixth woman to be elected president of the APA





Division 44, Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual issues is formed


Section 1 of Division 35, the Section on the Psychology of Black Women is formed


AWP presents "An International Feminist Mental Health Agenda for the Year 2000" at the final event of the U. N. Decade for Women conference in Nairobi, Kenya


Evelyn Fox Keller publishes Reflections on Gender and Science

Donna Haraway publishes A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century




AWP members picket the annual APA convention in protest of several new diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders


Angela Ginorio: First chair of the newly founded Committee of the Concerns of Hispanic Women - the Committee replaced the previous Task Force founded in 1977





Bonnie Strickland: Seventh woman to be elected president of the APA


Elizabeth Scarborough and Laurel Furumoto publish Untold Lives: The First Generation of American Women Psychologists

Janet Stoppard leads the Women and Mental Health Committee of the Canadian Mental Health Association





Janet Spence: First president of the Association for Psychological Science


Mary Crawford chairs the newly founded Task Force on Feminist Research and Epistemology


Section 4 of Division 35, the Section for Lesbian and Bisexual Women's issues formed


Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society is established


Rachel Hare-Mustin and Jeanne Marecek publish The Meaning of Difference: Gender Theory, Postmodernism, and Psychology in American Psychologist




Historian Londa Schiebinger publishes The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science




First issue of the Journal of Men's Studies published





First issue of Feminism & Psychology published


Susan Faludi's Backlash, The Undeclared War on American Women is published, documenting the backlash against the feminist movement  


feminist philosopher Sandra Harding publishes Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives




Report of the APA Task Force on Violence against Women


Carol Tavris publishes The Mismeasure of Women: Why Women are Not the Better Sex, the Inferior Sex, or the Opposite Sex

Stephanie Riger publishes Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science, Social Values, and the Study of Women inAmerican Psychologist




Sandra Bem publishes The Lenses of Gender, Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality




Christine Iijima Hall: First woman president of the Asian American Psychological Association


Report of the APA Task Force on the Changing Composition of Psychology


Division 35 becomes the 4th largest division of the APA





The Status of Women Committee of the CPA is dissolved


Dorothy Cantor: Eighth woman elected president of APA





Oliva Espin publishes Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality

The Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity is established (Division 51 of the APA)


Pro-Choice Forum is established and sponsored by Division 35


The Women's Ways of Knowing Project which analyzed and coded 135 in-depth interviews asking women about their gender, relationships, ways of knowing, and moral dilemmas culminates in the book, Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind




The first National Multicultural Conference and Summit is held in California. It is sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, the Society for the Psychology of Women, the Society of Counseling Psychology, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues





Report of the APA Task Force on Women in Academe


Inaugural issue of the APA journal Psychology of Men and Masculinity

Chela Sandoval publishes Methodology of the Oppressed




Norine G. Johnson: Ninth woman to be elected president of the APA 





Diane F. Halpern: Tenth woman to be elected president of the APA   


March for Women's Lives in Washington, DC; an estimated one million people march to support women's reproductive rights


Paula Caplan and Lisa Cosgrove publish Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis, sponsored by the Association for Women in Psychology, part of a sustained, ongoing struggle against diagnostic labels that pathologize and harm women





Janet Shibley Hyde publishes the Gender Similarities Hypothesis in American Psychologist




Sharon Stephens Brehm: Eleventh woman to be elected president of the APA 


Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls





Carol Goodheart: Twelfth woman to be elected president of the APA





Melba Vasquez: Thirteenth woman, and first woman of color, to be elected president of APA


The Society for the Psychology of Women Special Committee on Violence Against Women publishes a report on the trafficking of women and girls.






If you know of an important historical event that should be listed here,email the date and afew lines about the event
to alexr [@] yorku.caLinks to further information and photos with proper permissions are also appreciated.